New Delhi: Physical activity or a regular exercise regimen is a key component in the management of type 2 diabetes. Until recently, studies showing the importance of exercise in managing diabetes were very few. . However, we can now see that there is plenty of research pointing to the importance of exercise to effectively manage blood sugar.
Research indicates that participating in a regular exercise regimen improves blood sugar control, prevents or delays the onset of type 2 diabetes, and increases your body’s sensitivity to insulin, countering insulin resistance. ‘insulin.
Additionally, regular physical activity positively affects blood pressure and cardiovascular health, lowers harmful LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, raises healthy HDL cholesterol, strengthens muscles and bones, reduces anxiety, and improves your overall well-being. .
How does exercise affect blood sugar?
At the start of exercise, glycogen stores are used as fuel. Additionally, when glycogen stores are depleted, muscles increase blood glucose uptake as well as free fatty acids released from fatty tissue.
Muscles can use your blood sugar without insulin intervention when you exercise.
What type of activity helps manage diabetes?
All forms of exercise such as aerobic, resistance, or both in a structured training regimen have shown lower HbA1c values in people with diabetes.
Both resistance training and aerobic exercise help reduce insulin resistance, however, combining the two types of exercise has been shown to be more beneficial than doing either alone. In a recent meta-analysis, combined aerobic, resistance and exercise training was found to be associated with reductions in HbA1c of 0.67% after 12 weeks or more of training.
Therefore, people with diabetes should maintain a healthy workout regimen.
Resistance training for diabetes
70-80% of the glucose in your body after a meal goes into the muscles. Maintaining good muscle mass is essential for better glucose assimilation. Therefore, adding resistance training to the training regimen becomes very important.
Emerging research suggests that resistance training has the power to combat metabolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and appears to be an effective measure to improve lower metabolic risk factors in people with diabetes and improve metabolic health global. A meta-analysis of 10 studies of supervised resistance exercise included, RT reduced HbA1c by 0.48 percent.
Resistance exercise further increases excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC after exercise is linked to the use of fat for fuel, which is beneficial for weight loss.
Resistance training appears to be a useful strategy for improving overall metabolic health and reducing metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients, as it appears to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Aerobic training for diabetes
In type 1 and type 2 diabetes, moderate to high levels of aerobic activity are significantly related to reduced cardiovascular risk and total mortality.
In type 2 diabetes, therapies using aerobic exercise have dominated research on the impact of exercise on glycemic indices. Large muscle groups are moved continuously and rhythmically during aerobic activity, which includes things like cycling, jogging, and walking. According to the most recent recommendations of the ADA, individual sessions of aerobic activity should preferably last at least 30 minutes each day and be performed 3 to 7 days a week.
Moderate to vigorous aerobic training (65-90% of maximum heart rate) improves cardiac output VO2max, which is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In people with type 2 diabetes, regular training reduces hbA1c and insulin resistance. Alternatively, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Aerobic exercise increases the number of mitochondria, insulin sensitivity, oxidative enzymes, blood vessel compliance and responsiveness, immune system activity, lung function, and cardiac output.
While aerobic exercise is good on its own, it is important to ensure that there is a combined aerobic and resistance training activity for best benefits.
What precautions should I take before exercising?
Checking your blood sugar before your workouts can help you better understand your body and start taking the necessary precautions.
When your blood sugar is below 100 mg/dL, it may be too low to exercise safely. Eat a small snack containing 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrates, such as a fruit (banana or apple – they are digested quickly and give you better energy) before starting your workout.
When your blood sugar is 100-250 mg/dL, you’re good to go. This is a safe blood sugar range before exercise for the majority of people. If you feel like you need extra energy, you can always eat fruit before working out.
When your blood sugar is 250 mg/dL or higher, it is not safe to exercise because the blood sugar is too high. Consult your doctor about blood sugar control, then follow their instructions before doing any activity, as exercise can sometimes raise blood sugar even more.
Exercise plays a vital role in the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance, prediabetes, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related health issues. Therefore, following a regular exercise regimen is ideal for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and thus managing diabetes.